Already, in some African countries droughts and floods occur more
frequently, and outside of previously known cycles. Higher
evaporation rates will cause more rainfall in some areas, causing
soil erosion and desertification of areas. In the future, Africa, the
poorest continent, will be particularly hard hit by droughts and
floods while having few resources to combat these.
Transport will be affected by cracking road surfaces, rupturing
pipelines, railway lines and runways. Melting permafrost presents
risks of road and rail- track subsidence.
Permafrost in Alaska, Russia and Canada is already melting.
Billions of tones of methane gasses now locked in huge frozen peat
bogs in Siberia.
The size of this frozen peat-bog is like the size of France and
Germany combined.
iii. Effects of Global Warming on Food Production:
As temperatures around the world will increase, plants will find it
harder to cope and they will die. Some of the plants are used by
humans for food and so a food shortage may occur. Plants make
their own food through the process called photosynthesis.
The enzymes that are needed for photosynthesis die when exposed
to high temperatures. Pests may also migrate to new areas and
destroy the crops there. Pests may migrate from tropical countries
to temperature countries.
Agriculture would be severely affected because there is no water for
plants to grow (due to higher temperature). When there are no
plants, humans have nothing to eat. There are also no plants to feed
animals and so humans cannot eat animals either. The high
temperatures can also cause heat-strokes and other illnesses to
humans. Droughts will become more common in coming time.
iv. Effects of Global Warming on Ecosystems:
Animals have been migrating to adapt to new conditions. Some
butterflies, foxes and alpine plants have moved north to cooler
areas.

This migration destroys ecosystems and their biodiversity. As parts
of the food chain are lost from an ecosystem the whole ecosystem
can easily collapse. Ecosystems and their biodiversity are important
to humans. Humans get food, employment, raw materials and
pharmaceutical products from the environment.

It is possible that symbiotic species (species that depend on each
other) will become incompatible. Ecosystems will definitely change.
So species will migrate to more suitable conditions while some will
stay and try to adapt. Not all will succeed and more species will
become extinct. It is predicted that 25% of all mammals and 12% of
bird’s species will be extinct within the next 30 years.
v. Effects of Global Warming on Humans:
Rising temperatures have an effect on the health of humans. The
world glimpsed this in 2003 when Europe was struck by heat waves
and people died. Heat strokes are likely to increase as temperature
gets hotter.
Diseases such as malaria are likely to spread. Parasites that
originate in tropical regions may migrate to temperate regions as
become warmer. Mosquitoes are an example and it is predicted that
malaria will spread around world. It is also predicted that asthma
will increase around the world as allergens that cause asthma will
become more common.
Hurricanes have divesting effects on humans and their properties.
Hurricane Katrina was famous hurricane for decimated the city of
New Orleans, destroying structures, killing people and displacing.
vi. Effects of Global Warming on Oceans:
Between 1880 and 2000 a 20 cm. rise in ocean levels has been
recorded — now occurring at 0.2 mm per year. This is due to ocean
water expansion through its warming and water from melting

glaciers and polar ice. Oceans have absorbed about half the human-
made CO2 emissions since 1800. A higher CO2 content makes the

oceans more acid. This has adverse effects on coral, fish and
plankton.

Warmer ocean water and volumes of fresh water from melting
glaciers could disrupt the Gulfstream which influences Northern
European weather. A cooling effect could occur. Rising oceans cold
swallow low-lying islands and coastal areas.
vii. Effects of Global Warming on Water Availability:
Reduced rainfall, droughts, and vanishing glaciers will severely
reduce the availability of drinking water.
viii. Effects of Global Warming on Further Global Warming:
Melting glaciers and permafrost may be at a stage where there is no
turning back. As they contribute their fresh water to the oceans and
as methane gas is released these events will further accelerate
global warming. This is called the positive feedback effect.
“Tipping points” is a delicate threshold where a slight rise in the
Earth’s temperature can cause a dramatic change in the
environment that itself triggers a far greater increase in global
temperatures.
Huge deposits of methane are trapped in ice crystals under the
oceans. If these would be released the atmosphere would
experience sudden and significant further warming.
ix. Effects of Global Warming on Coral Reefs:
Corals get their food from an algae called zooxanthellae, which
lives in the coral. This algae is extremely sensitive to temperature
changes, and “an increase of just 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit can cause
corals to expel their algae, or ‘bleach’. Over a prolonged period of
time, bleaching leads to death.
A second contributing factor to the current sea-wide decline in
coral reefs is that, as atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide
(CO2) increasing oceans are becoming more acidic. This “reduces
the availability of free carbonate ions in the water,” making it
more difficult for the polyps that build coral reefs to extract the
calcium carbonate they need to survive.
x. Effects of Global Warming on Animals:

To get a better understanding of global warming, it is important to
understand the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the rise
in the temperatures caused by absorption of the Sun’s heat and
light by the Earth’s surface (forest, deserts, glaciers etc.), which
then is reflected back and trapped within the Earth’s atmosphere.
The greenhouse gases help to keep the earth’s surface warm and
this is the reason why life on Earth has existed and still thrives.
Earth has gotten nearly 14% hotter than what it used to be 50 years
ago, with 2005 being recorded as the hottest year ever. Besides
humans and plants, a global warming effect on animals is a cause of
concern.
As global warming causes climate change, many great deserts like
the Sahara are no longer able to sustain their animal population.
Loss of habitat is most vividly seen in the Arctic, where global
warming is melting the glaciers, pushing the polar bears into
extinction.
The melting glaciers have caused water levels to rise in May oceans,
threatening to drown many tropical islands and forests that have
animal life. The Gulf war oil spills, along with oil tanker spills, have
devastated a large number of aquatic lives. Changes in weather
patterns and coastlines affect the food patterns of most aquatic
creatures.
xi. Other Effects of Global Warming:
(a) Himalaya Glaciers Are Shrinking:
The Himalayas is an enormous mountain range consisting of about
15,000 glaciers and some of the world’s highest peaks, including
the 8,848 metre-high Mount Everest.
Three Himalaya glaciers have been shrinking over the last 40 years
due to global warming and two of them, Yala in central and AX010
in eastern Nepal may disappear in coming time.
Using global positioning system and simulation models, they found
that the shrinkage of two of the glaciers had accelerated in the past
10 years compared with the 1970s and 1980s.

Yala’s mass shrank by 0.8 metres (2.6 feet) and AX010 by 0.81
metres respectively per year in the 2000s, up from 0.68 and 0.72
metres per year between 1970 and 1990.
Apart from climate change and humidity, elevation of temperature
also appears to play a critical role in the lifespan of glaciers, which
are large persistent bodies of ice.
The Rikha Samba glacier in the drier region of west Nepal has also
been getting smaller since the 1970s, but its rate of shrinking
slowed to 0.48 metres per year in the past 10 years compared to 0.57
metres per year in the 1970s and 1980s.

This was because the 5,700 metre-high glacier was located on a
higher altitude, which meant that losses in mass from melting
could be compensated at least partly by collection of snowfall.
Yala and AX, are situated on lower elevation (altitudes), therefore
shrinkage was accelerated. These glaciers have no chance to get
snow mass and so will eventually disappear.
(b) Global Warming and Hurricanes:
Nature has its own ways of showing anger to the mankind. From
times immemorial mankind has been the victim of earthquakes,
floods, asteroids hitting the earth, volcanoes, hurricanes, droughts
and so on. A hurricane is the phenomenon of formation of a
cyclonic storm system over the oceans.

It is caused by evaporated water that comes off of the ocean and
becomes a storm. The Coriolis Effect causes the storms to spin and
a hurricane is declared when this spinning mass of storms attains a
wind speed greater than 74 megha per hertz.
There has been a clear increase in the frequency of tropical storms
and major hurricanes in the North Atlantic. From 1850-1990, the
long-term average number of tropical storms was about 10,
including about 5 hurricanes.
For the period of 1998-2007, the average is about 15 tropical storms
per year, including about 8 hurricanes. This increase in frequency
correlates strongly with the rise in North Atlantic sea surface
temperature and according to recent studies the reason for this
temperature increase is global warming.
Global Warming and Antarctica:

Global warming has increased rapidly during the past few decades
and consequently warmer temperatures in the Antarctic summer
are causing massive ice sheets to break up and float away. It is
potentially an enormous problem and if this trend continues, the
Antarctic ice caps may begin to melt and cause sea- level rises
globally measured in meters.
There are many cities around the world that are on the coast and
they would be flooded and probably have to be abandoned. In many
countries, especially poorer countries a large part of the population
living in coastal regions faces similar threat. In some cases entire
island nations could simply disappear in the Pacific Ocean.
The 770 square mile (1,994 Km2) Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated
suddenly in January 1995. Secondly, the break-up of the Larsen B
ice shelf in early 2002 has been also attributed to the effects of
global warming.
The Larsen B ice shelf was about 220 m thick and during a 35 day
period in early 2002 lost about 3,250 Km2 of ice into the ocean. It is
thought to have been in existence for at least 400 years. Overall in

the Antarctic Peninsula, seven ice shelves have between them
declined in area by about 13,500 Km since 1974.
Moreover, the permanent ice cover of nine lakes on Signy Island
has decreased by about 45% since the 1950.

The latest victim of rising temperature, Wilkins Ice Shelf is the
largest slab of ice so far to disintegrate in the Antarctic. Until
recently, it was anchored to the Charcot and Latady islands by an
ice bridge. On April 5, 2009, the ice bridge snapped leading to huge
(41 by 2.5 km) berg being broken away.
The Antarctic Peninsula, particularly the west coast of the
Peninsula is warming at a rate 2 or 3 times faster than the global
average. The average annual temperature of this region has
increased about 2.5°C in the last 50 years.
Rising temperature causes ice shelves to break up as they are
floating already this will not affect sea levels; it may cause the
glaciers behind them to speed up their flow-rate considerably.
These glaciers will add to sea level rise if they melt.
The marine and terrestrial life in Antarctica is also getting
drastically affected by global warming. Antarctica’s only two
flowering plant species that grow only on the Peninsula have
spread considerably in the last few decades.
In some areas they are becoming the dominant species. Penguins
(Pygoscelis adeliae) have also been suffering a steady decline in
parts of the Antarctic Peninsula region for the last 20 years.
Moreover, studies (November 2004) have shown that stocks of krill
in Antarctica have declined dramatically in recent years. Krill
numbers may have dropped by as much as 80% since the 1970’s.
The decline in Krill may in turn account for the decline in the
numbers of some penguin species.
Global Warming and Polar Bears:

Polar bears are adapted to freezing environments and they can
survive at temperatures as low as -46°C. This is why they thrive in
Antarctica where snow, sea ice, and glacial ice cover most areas
year round. At warmer climates, polar bears overheat and die.
This is why global warming poses a great threat to the world’s
population of polar bears. Already, the increase in global
temperature has caused a significant reduction in sea ice. Although
Arctic temperatures are still well within the tolerable range for
polar bears, the thinning and melting of ice due to global warming
has already caused a significant number of polar bear drowning’s.
The change in Arctic climate has also caused polar bears to face
starvation due to food shortages since they are losing about three
weeks for hunting on solid ice and feeding on their prey. Polar bears
now weigh at least 15% less than they did just 30 years ago.
For a typical adult male, which would amount to about 150 pounds
less in weight, 60% of the 20,000-25,000 polar bears will die off
within the next 50 years.

In May of 2008, polar bears became classified as an endangered
species because of the significant number of deaths caused by
global warming.

Control of Global Warming:

Global warming has become one of the most serious issues in
current affairs, politicians and environmentalists due to the various
risks and effects associated with it.
Despite the fact that global warming is increasing at an alarming
rate and it might be too late to restore the damage it has caused, it
is believed that developing an aggressive plan of action can help to
reduce its negative impact.
Some suggestions to reduce global warming are:
i. Lighting:
Use Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) bulbs. These use 60% less
energy than incandescent bulbs. By using CFLs, we can save around
140 kg of CO2 each year.

ii. Proper Heating, Cooling and Ventilation:
Use programmable thermostats, lowering thermostat by 2°C during
the winter. Proper thermostat setting will keep from emitting over
900 kg of CO2 each year. Up-to 160 kg of CO2 can be saved annually
by cleaning air conditioning and furnace filters regularly.
Using double-glazed windows and insulating ceilings and walls
properly will not only reduce energy bill by around 25% but also
reduce annual CO2 emissions by over 900 kg. Weather-stripping
and caulking will also reduce from emitting up to 800 kg. of CO2 a
year.
iii. Appliances, Fixtures and Equipment:
Use energy efficient appliances. Keep refrigerator and freezer away
from cooker and boilers. This can help in reducing yearly
CO2 emissions by 160-320 kg. If you have a water heater, wrap it
with an insulation blanket and set its thermostat to a maximum of
50°C. These can help us to reduce our yearly CO2 emissions by 700
kg.
iv. Bathroom, Kitchen and Laundry Practices:
Dry your laundry outdoors rather than using a dryer. Doing this can
help you keep from emitting up to 635 kg of CO2 each year.
Use the least possible amount of hot water in bathroom, kitchen
and laundry room. By using warm or cold water to wash clothes up
to 230 kg of CO2 could be saved per year.
v. Waste Management:
Send all recyclables to recycling plants. Recycle at least half of
household’s waste can save up to 1,100 kg of CO2 per year. Also,
compost organic waste to reduce methane emissions.
vi. Transportation:
Transportation sector is second largest contributor of carbon
dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Drive less, take bikes, walk
or carpool whenever possible.
vii. Maintenance:
If only 1% of all car owners maintained their cars properly, annual
CO2 emissions can be reduced by up to 453, 592, 370 kg. Also
properly inflated tires at all times as tire pressure greatly affects
gas mileage 9 kg of CO2 can be saved from being emitted into the
atmosphere by saving just 1 gallon of gasoline.

Some more suggestions to reduce global warming are:
1. Consider investing in a hybrid or electric vehicle to help prevent
against further global warming.
2. Clean or replace your filters monthly.
3. Choose energy-efficient appliances when it’s time to buy new
ones.
4. Decrease your air travel.
5. Wash clothes in cold water and line-dry whenever possible.
6. Cut down on your garbage-buy fewer packaged materials to
prevent further global warming. Composting is another efficient
option that an significantly reduce landfill spaces.
7. Unplug electronics when they are not in use, because they still
take up energy. At the very least, turn items off when they’re not
being used.
8. Run the dishwasher and clothes washer only when you have a full
load, and if available, use the energy-saving setting.
9. Buy recycled paper products and recycle as much of your waste as
possible.
10. Plant a tree. Trees can be an effective solution in countering this
serious problem.
11. Use non-toxic cleaning products that are environment friendly.
12. Eat less meat and more organic foods in your diet to do your part
in preventing global warming. This is one of the most effective
ways to reduce our personal carbon footprint and to generally
reduce our personal negative impact on the environment.

Name= Ravi verma
Registratio no:=12101029
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